norwegian army cold war

It is unknown how many of the 10 StuGs remained operable, and what their origins were. The battalion is in the process of re-equipping from. Ns. At first, the company was given just one of the Hæren’s M24s to experiment with. The unit remained in this form until the end of the war. This led the Danish king to invite German mercenaries to coach and command the Danish-Norwegian Armed Forces: a decision echoing down the centuries in traces of Germanic vocabulary used by the Norwegian military to this day. In my own experience of NM-116 crews, we would regularly amend the tanks for comfort and for practical purposes. Its gun simply did not have the penetrative power to combat modern armored fighting vehicles. In the upgrade program, the tanks were equipped with new split rubber block tracks made by the German company, Diehl. The Parliament in 1994 and 1995 approved a series of major organizational changes, for the Army in particular. The fourth vehicle of the platoon was left in reserve, and would only be mobilized (by reservist troops) in an emergency – eg, an enemy attack. Livonian People's Army - Cold War. The Chaffee gave the Norwegian Army one of its earliest experiences in the operation of relatively modern armor after the Second World War, and served as its primary tank for many years. Army surplus finds its way to the civilian market in the following way: the armed forces of one country or other decides to get rid of big batches of perfectly serviceable gear due to cuts in military budgets, said gear becoming obsolete or redundant or some other similar reason. The four Chaffee hulls went through the same automotive upgrades as those being upgraded to NM-116 standard. The tank was operated by a 5-man crew consisting of a Commander, Gunner, and Loader in the turret, with the Driver and Radio Operator/Bow Machine Gunner in the hull. This phone would allow infantry outside of the tank to communicate with the vehicle commander and give him fire directions or other important messages. The 25th Panzer Division had originally been formed as the “Schützenverband Oslo”. Armament consisted of the 75 mm Lightweight Tank Gun M6 which had a concentric recoil system (this was a hollow tube around the barrel, a space-saving alternative to traditional recoil cylinders). It is also in our interests to hit back against such attacks. At some point, the single-baffle square muzzle brake of the 90mm gun, installed on the prototypes, was exchanged for a tubular ‘T’ shaped muzzle brake, similar to those used on US tanks such as the M48 Patton. Thanks to these, we know the specific history of 4 Panzer IIIs, as they survive today in Norway. The tanks were dug into pits roughly 4 meters (13.1 ft) wide, 5.5 meters (18 ft) long with a 3.25 meter ramp, and 1.5 meters (4.9 ft) deep, leaving just their turrets above the ground. The conversion work to turn the vehicles into ARVs was undertaken by Kvaerner Eureka AS. Thune-Eureka A/S, based in the country’s capital, Oslo, was chosen to develop an effective upgrade solution. The total peace strength was 118,500 men and comprised 71,S36 rifles, 228 field and 36 heavy guns. The budget of the army for 1919–20 was 1,940,000. At some point, however, its turret was replaced with an Ausf. This allowed the vehicle to tow vehicles behind it. This kept Finland’s StuG fleet in operation well into the 1960s. Lastly, 76219 was built by MAN in 1943. This may also be true for some of the 5 cm KwK 39 L/60 gun-armed tanks. To augment the ambush tactics used with the NM-116, the vehicles would be covered in ‘live’ camouflage. For winter, they were covered in a rough white-wash haphazardly lashed on by hand. This however, would also not last long as the unit again went through several restructurings before finally ending up as the Panzerbrigade Norwegen. The Army is the oldest of the service branches, established as a modern military organization in 1628. [5], Structure of the Norwegian Armed Forces 2012, In 2009 the Army introduced the new command and control lines. With the new upgrade came a new role for the tank, now designated the NM-116. The crew that assisted Sergeant Stoli, for instance, carried a welder. It was a small tank at 16 foot 4 inches (5.45 m) long, 9 foot 4 inches (2.84 m) wide, and 5 foot 3 inches (2.61 m) tall. In 1946, Norway began to operate a fleet of M24 Chaffee light tanks given to it under a United States-led Military Aid Program (MAP). 73651 is an Ausf. Army and Outdoors - also known as Kiwi Disposals - has been around for a while now, more than 30 years' actually. (a) Brigade North was the Norwegian Army’s main standing regular formation and in the event of war would be deployed immediately to the Finnmark border area. Moreover, the contributions that Norway has been able to make to international operations have tended to consist of lightly armoured mechanized infantry, well-suited for more traditional peacekeeping tasks (UNIFIL in southern Lebanon to which Norway contributed a sizable unit for over twenty years) but not sufficiently robust for missions which might entail enforcement tasks. Soldiers deserted or were captured. The NM-116 was the result of a military on a small budget trying to improve the lethality of its tank arsenal. The remaining 36 vehicles were mostly used as donors for spare parts. The engine gave the tank more power as it produced 260 hp, but slowed the tank down to a top speed of 47 km/h (29 mph). NM-116’s assigned to platoon leaders were equipped with an AN/VRC44 unit, while other tanks were equipped with the AN/VRC64. The transmission and drive wheels were located at the front of the vehicle. A protective frame was also built around it. Norwegian Cyber Force Other main structures, include: 1. Unprecedented war games, involving 5,000 Norwegian troops and 400 vehicles, have started in Norway’s northernmost province, bordering Russia. After the Kalmar War broke out in 1611, the Danish king tried to revive the volunteer leidang, with dire results. Dick Taylor & Mike Hayton, Panzer III: Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. Another change saw the addition of a new sprocket wheel with smaller and fewer teeth. Four heat exchangers were also installed to cool the engine’s oil. FSAN (Defence medical center), Armor battalion, Intelligence battalion, Medical battalion and Artillery battalion, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia,, "Scandinavian governments support Bush’s war against terrorism",,, "Norwegian soldier killed in Afghanistan",,,,;jsessionid=XSEGJKECM4GQ1QFIZYGSFEQ?_requestid=27674,, Inside, the tanks were completely stripped. It was quite common to lose the tracks or to sink into deep snow. In April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed and NATO was born, resulting in the United States prolonging its Military Aid Programs. Also, while the NM-116 kept just two of the original four shock absorbers, the NM-130 kept three, with two at the front, and one at the rear. This allowed the vehicle to tow vehicles behind it. This attracted the attention of German submarines. Here, Dag Rune Nilsen describes how the vehicles were employed: “The NM-116 wasn’t regarded as much of a tank and there were many jokes about it. This work has resulted in a strong academic community and support for a new Cold War museum in Bodø. 3 – 1: Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. After 1943, many of these units were re-equipped with more powerful and newer tanks, so it is possible that these tanks were sent to Norway as it was a less crucial part of Germany’s war effort, ergo, units stationed there were not in need of the latest armored vehicles. J, was put into storage at the Oslo Defence Museum in 1964. A new intercom system for the crew was also installed. Originally built as an Ausf. Lieutenant (left) and Corporal, Norwegian Army, 1940 In 1939, after more than a hundred years of peace, Norway did not possess a large standing army and her government considered that effective national defense against a major power was impossible. At least 4 StuG III Ausf. Cold War. Also in 1949, Norway and the west became an even more united front. Military equipment is traditionally excellent stuff; it combines durability with very affordable prices. The 25 Strv KW-IIIs and 10 Stkn KW-IIIs were divided between the newly created Airport Defense regiments. Provision was also made for the installation of passive-night vision/infrared sights for the commander, gunner and driver positions. At least one NM-130 can still be found at the Rogaland Krigshistorisk Museum, also in Norway. With the German occupational forces in 1940, as with the other parts of the Armed Forces, the Army had to surrender to a superior force, but army units were the ones resisting for the longest period of time: The 6th Division led by the legendary Major General Carl Gustav Fleischer participated in the allied recapture of Narvik. These cookies do not store any personal information. This boosted the original armor thickness of 15 mm to 50 mm. The most famous period of Norwegian history and thus military history is the Viking Age, but the early Middle Ages was the era when Norwegian military power in Europe reached its peak. Rifles, machine guns, anti-tank guns, tools, and even some aircraft were left behind and claimed by the now free and rebuilding Norwegian Military (Forsvaret, Eng: “The Defence”). In the late-1960s, the Norwegian Military (Forsvaret, Eng: “The Defence”) began an upgrade program with the company of Thune-Eureka A/S, based in the country’s capital, Oslo. During the war of 1643–45, the Norwegian army performed well while its Danish counterpart flopped. Upon arriving in Finland, the tanks were disassembled and all useful parts were stored for later use. Thanks to the birth of NATO, however, Norway began to receive more military aid, and the number of M24 Chaffees available to the Army vastly increased. The NM-116 in the later years of its service during the mid-1980s. 3 – 1: Panzerkampfwagen III Ausf. This Expansion for Cold War Rearmed² adds Infantry of the Royal Norwegian Army, their weapons and some vehicles. The main part of the exercise will be located in the district of Troms. Many were also equipped with Schürzen armor and/or Zimmerit anti-magnetic mine paste. This was likely done to improve the compatibility with new track types. The Commander sat in a position roughly halfway down the length of the hull, on the right side, under a large circular hatch with an incorporated periscope. It was powered by a 12-cylinder Maybach HL 120 TRM 300 PS, producing 296 hp. Its small size made it perfect for operations in the harsh Scandinavian terrain. Cold War museum. H variety. This, however, was not their intended role. At least 2 types of StuG III were reused by the Norwegians. The Ausf. The Combat Service and Support battalion is the Army's transportation and supply unit. Hat (size 58) White wool mittens with trigger finger (size small,but large sized), Green windbraker mittens with trigger finger (one size fits all/large unmarked), Gaiters and feet warmers to pull over the toe of the boot. Cap used by Norwegian army in cold war. These regiments were raised between November and December 1948. To ensure a cost-efficient implementation, it is necessary to focus the activities in the Army on the process of transforming the army from a large mobilization army to a smaller, professional army. In October 1949, the Dragoon Regiments officially began to garrison the airports. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. J, originally built by Henschel und Sohn in May, 1941 before being upgraded. The NM-130’s crew consisted of three personnel; Commander, Crane Operator and Driver. It is unknown how many of the Panzer IIIs with the short 7.5 cm KwK 37 guns were true Ausf. In the early 18th century the Swedes invaded Norway yet again, and this time the Norwegian army held its own, setting the stage for nearly a century of peace – the longest yet in modern Norwegian history – during which a distinct Norwegian identity began to take root. The tanks were initially equipped with the original US T85E1 rubber chevron tracks. The Norwegian Armed Forces will conduct exercise Cold Response together with allied and partner nations in March 2020. The military history of Norway commences before the Viking Age with the internal wars fought between regional kings to obtain the supreme kingship of the whole of Norway. By 1951, the entire KW-III force had been replaced by the plentiful Chaffees. Rather frustratingly, despite extensive searches and inquiries by both writers, no pictures can currently be found of the Panzer turrets in situ during their time in operation. In this crane adaption, two hydraulic pumps were installed in the engine compartment to power the hydraulically operated crane, winch, and dozer blade. A small dozer blade was also installed on the lower glacis. The ‘Military Aid Program’ benefited the war-ravaged countries of the Second World War by providing them the means to rebuild their military and defenses. Other features included the introduction of large tool/stowage boxes on the rear of the left and right fenders. The brigade is the Norwegian Army's only major combat formation. The Crane Operator’s position was incorporated into the crane boom and was mounted on its right. FK KKIS(Defence command and control center) The NM-116 was also given two types of new tracks, which could be switched between depending on terrain. This method of whitewashing lasted into the 1980s. As such, the Norwegian Military turned to the French and decided upon their D/925 Low-Pressure 90 mm Gun. Each Panserjagr Company (Eskadron) had 2 NM-116 platoons, 2 NM-142 (TOW) Rakettpanserjager platoons, a CSS platoon with several M113 and a single NM-130 Bergepanser. The majority of tanks that remained from this were scrapped, though it is believed at least one was taken by the Navy and turned into a static turret placed on a fort. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. This 90 mm (3.5 in) gun was similar to that installed on France’s own Panhard AML 90, which was equipped with the D/921. The vehicle was also capable of supporting Norway’s fleet of US-made M113 Armored Personnel Carriers (APC) and derivative there of, such as the NM-142 (TOW) Rakettpanserjager. A small number of vehicles – exact amount unknown – were used as static coastal defenses. In April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed, and NATO was born with Norway a founding member. It was armed with the 75 mm Lightweight Tank Gun M6. These were initially bought from Nazi Germany, but they remained in service post-war. Sola, located on Norway’s south-eastern coast, was an important link with the western Allies. These were reportadly recycled from F-86 Saber Fighter Jets, around 180 of which were operated by the Royal Norwegian Air Force (No: Luftforsvaret) from 1957 to 1967. Another addition was an infantry or ‘Grunt’ phone, installed on the right rear fender of the NM-116. A couple of them took the chance to have a piss. However, during my years at (PVEsk/N), these plans were amended locally. These cookies will be stored in your browser only with your consent. An example of such a vehicle can be found at The Museum of the American G.I. Jim Mesko, M24 Chaffee in Action, Squadron/Signal Publications “The removed turrets were used for the basic training of gunners and loaders. When needed, the ‘sheds’ were raised via hydraulics. The crane operator sat in an external, unarmored position on the crane unit when it was in operation. It is unclear how many of the four NM-130s survive. The best of these were themselves repaired and rearmed as best as possible. He changed his mind when a delegation of US Marine officers found it hilarious to see Snoopy being a mascot on a Norwegian tank!”. The 2-7 tonnes lift capacity was more than enough to hoist the NM-116’s Detroit Diesel engine which weighed just 600 kgs (1323 lbs). At the end of the Cold War, the Norwegian Army was structured to be able to grow from a peacetime force of 20,000 personnel to a fully mobilised strength of 160,000 troops in thirteen brigades and dozens of independent units. cold war - translate into Norwegian with the English-Norwegian Dictionary - Cambridge Dictionary Værnes, located roughly in central Norway, allowed transit to the North and South of the country. The original concentric recoil system (this was a hollow tube around the barrel, a space-saving alternative to traditional recoil cylinders) from the 75 mm gun was retained. The General Inspector now commands three subordinate major commands and 5 smaller support units:[6][7]. From a small warehouse taking wholesale orders to now operating two retail stores (Auckland and Christchurch) and a busy website serving New Zealand and the world. The moss and peat would last for at least 3 weeks, but the shrubbery would be replaced every other day. With the end of the Second World War, Norway was once again facing the possibility of invasion, this time from the Soviet Union with which it shared a northern border. These are Fahrgestell 66158, 73651, 74352 and 76219. What was more impressive, is that the Canadian Recon Patrol left our position without noticing the other 9 armored vehicles (6 NM-116 + 3 NM-142) sat alongside us! The tank finally entered service in January 1975, with the last units delivered in October 1976. The Chaffee rolled on 5 roadwheels attached to a torsion bar suspension. CIS TG (Communications and informations systems task group). As said above, most of the remaining M24s went into service with the Heimevernet. Main article: Barents Sea Incident During the spring and summer of 2010, the Russian Northern Fleet, with its flagship Admiral Kuznetsovin lead, held several naval exercises as strategic bombers continued flying along the Norwegian territorial waters. I also had some experience in the NM-142 (TOW) Rakettpanserjager.”. Among European NATO members, the military expenditure of US$7.2 billion is the highest per capita. The Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF) was established by a royal decree on 1 November 1944, thereby merging the Army and Navy air forces. After the Kalmar War broke out in 1611, the Danish king, Fredrik II in the Kingdom of Denmark tried to revive the volunteer leidang, with dire results. Teknisk Håndbok, Panserjager NM-116: Beskrivelse, Behandling, og Brukerens Vedlikehold (Eng: Technical Manual, Panserjager NM-116: Description, Treatment, and User Maintenance). This work was carried out at Trandum, an Army base just north-east of Oslo. The Signals Battalion operates the brigade's communications. The turrets, however, were completely removed and replaced with a large crane. A new hole was cut into the side of the buried tanks to connect them to the new structures to allow the use of the old ammunition tunnels. Dag Rune Nilsen perhaps describes it best: “I would describe the NM-130 as a fit for purpose recovery tank, and thus a very successful modification. These included Gardermoen, Eggemoen, Sola, Fornebu, Værnes, and Bardufoss. The NM-116 was retired in 1993. G being based on Panzer III Ausf. The Norwegian military wanted more punch but understood that the small chassis of the M24 probably wouldn’t stand up to the punishment of the recoil force produced by a large 90 mm (3.5 in) – or larger – gun. z.b.V. A camouflage-colored version of the field jacket was introduced in the peace army in 1988. cold war translation in English-Norwegian dictionary. Variants of this gun were also used on the B-25H Mitchell Bomber, and the T33 Flame Thrower Tank prototype. 1. This resulted in the United States prolonging their Military Aid Programs. Jim Mesko, M24 Chaffee in Action, Squadron/Signal Publications It is likely that because of this, most NM-116s were scrapped after they were retired. Earth was then built up around the new emplacements, completely burying the tanks. N or M turret with the short 75 mm. By the 1960s, however, it was apparent that the 75 mm gun-armed Chaffee was in need of an upgrade if it was to combat the threat represented by the USSR. Sir Nick Carter has said that a … A, B, C & D Army wants Cold War plan for China. The turrets were replaced with 40 mm Bofors anti-aircraft guns. The greatest accomplishment of WW2 by Norwegian forces was the victory in the battle of Narvik, especially the mountain war forcing the German forces all the way from the ocean to the Swedish border. Another improvement to the operation of the tank came with the introduction of new radios. In Norwegian service, these were called Stridsvogn KW-III and Stormkanon KW-III, respectively. Another, which is simply the remains of a rusting hulk, can be found at Rogaland Krigshistorisk Museum. This has led to some confusion as 76149 is actually one of the StuGs, an Ausführung G. Thanks to the Fahrgestell numbers, this information is known to us, but quite how these things ended up in Norway by the war’s end is currently a mystery. Due to the poor economic strength of Norway, funding was limited in the early parts of the Cold War, forcing the government to make incremental modernizations to its military equipment. With the end of the Cold War, Norway began to modernize its military. The Norwegian government was one of the strongest supporters for the war, Jens Stoltenberg even said “It is also in our interests to hit back against such attacks,” but added later “we assume that the USA is not interested in retaliating in any way which could pose a threat to world peace.”, Norwegian Defence Minister at the time, Bjørn Tore Godal, said “the United States is Norway’s most important ally. In April, the North Atlantic Treaty was signed, and NATO was born with Norway a founding member. Vehicles belonging to Brigade Nord used the same pattern as Norway’s Leopards as, at the time, there was no official pattern provided for the NM-116. Unprecedented war games, involving 5,000 Norwegian troops and 400 vehicles, have started in Norway’s northernmost province, bordering Russia. The ‘Military Aid Program’ benefited the war-ravaged countries of the Second World War by providing them the means to rebuild their military and defenses. The KW-III turrets remained in place into the 1960s, by which time they became obsolete. 141), Haynes Publishing/The Tank Museum, Thomas Jentz, Hilary Doyle, Panzer Tracts No. A hydraulically driven winch was mounted at the base of the crane boom. NAPCO demonstrated the NM-116 to Greece and Taiwan. All other NM-116 equipped units were kept in reserve for rapid mobilization or for use by reservist troops. NM-116s were organized into Panserjager platoons with 4 vehicles per platoon. Norway is already providing intelligence assistance to the United States. The gun had a muzzle velocity of 619 m/s (2,031 ft/s) and had a maximum penetration of 109 mm. This arrangement, however, would not last for long as, in May 1944, it was transferred to Denmark in order to reinforce the 25th Pz. Norwegian Air Force. The Bergepanser entered service around the same time as the NM-116 and left service with its tank-killing brother in the early 1990s. but I did indeed witness the recovery team rescue many of my comrades. Much like the dozer blade (No:bulldozerblad) found on the American M88 ARV, the NM-130’s dozer blade performed three main roles: light earthmoving operations/obstacle clearance, support during lifting operations, and anchorage when winching. Clemens Niesner, Norge – Hærens Styrker, Vehicles of the Modern Norwegian Land Forces, Tankograd Publishing. Illustration produced by Ardhya Anargha, funded by our Patreon campaign. These reserve vehicles were never painted in the ‘Splinter’ scheme, and were only painted in light olive green. Early on, it operated mainly captured French Somua S35 and Hotchkiss H35 tanks but later received Panzer III and IV tanks as well as a few StuG III assault guns. The Sturmgeschütz were a series of assault guns that found a successful role as tank destroyers. This was likely done to improve the compatibility with new track types. They were mounted on the left and right fenders in single banks of four. Of the Hæren’s 125 M24s, 72 would go on to be used in the NM-116 upgrade program. N turret can be found at the André Becker Collection in Belgium. Chaffee., entered service in 1944, largely replacing the M3 and M5 Stuarts. Nevertheless, the tank served the Norwegian Army well for 18 years, finally being retired in 1993. By midday on 9 April 1940, the German armed forces had occupied nearly all the airfields and seaplane bases south of Narvik, and most of Norway’s semi-modem fighters (Gloster Gladiators) had been destroyed in the defense of Oslo on the opening day of the German invasion. N standard and fitted with the short 7.5cm KwK 37. It was a small tank, at 16 foot 4 inches (5.45 m) long, 9 foot 4 inches (2.84 m) wide, and 5 foot 3 inches (2.61 m) tall. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. Norwegian special forces were involved in combat operations during Operation Enduring Freedom in 2002, and Norwegian Army troops during Operation Harekate Yolo in 2007. Like the majority of Panzer IIIs that were still in service at war’s end, many of them were upgraded older models, having been upgunned or up-armored. The vehicle left Norway in the late 1940s and was located in Sweden until the 1980s. It moved up and down via two large hydraulic rams mounted above it. Someone is proabably gonna say that this is'nt really a war. It is unclear when exactly the NM-130 was retired, but there is a possibility that it stayed on in service a little longer to serve Norway’s fleet of M48s and Leopard 1s, but concrete evidence of this cannot be found. As later model Panzer IIIs, the majority of the tanks were equipped with an add-on armor kit known as ‘Vorpanzer’. in College Station, Texas, USA. The crane had a relatively low lift capacity as it was not designed to lift the entire vehicle, but just its components. The transmission and drive wheels were located at the front of the vehicle. Like the NM-116, the vehicle initially entered service in an olive drab livery but, in the mid-1980s, a new ‘Splinter’ camouflage pattern was introduced. A few of the vehicles were also equipped with Schürzen add-on armor on the turret and hull sides. There was room in this cab for two trainees and one instructor. These were mostly of poor condition, however, so they went straight into storage. The Russo-Norwegian War was an armed conflict between Norway supported by fellow NATO countries on one side, and Russia on the other. Unfortunately, much like the NM-116, details of the Bergepanser’s time in service are scarce. In 1988, it was loaned to Memorial de Caen, Normandy. The Chaffee’s Twin Cadillac 220 hp petrol engine was replaced by a Detroit Diesel 6V-53T two-stroke diesel engine that was liquid-cooled and equipped with a turbocharger. The Chaffee rolled on 5 paired roadwheels attached to a torsion bar suspension. These two turrets could be easily mounted on the trainers in case of mobilization.”. The cable ends in a simple clevis rather than a hook. Army uniforms consist primarily of a field uniform for use in environments where a durable material is required, a work uniform for use in normal service, usually within and around the camp area, and a binder uniform for use during the leave. Clemens Niesner, Norge – Hærens Styrker, Vehicles of the Modern Norwegian Land Forces, Tankograd Publishing The conversion work to turn the vehicles into ARVs was undertaken by Kvaerner Eureka AS. The Army was reconstructed after the War, based among others on the forces established in exile in Sweden and Great Britain during the War, as well as on domestic forces. The Strvs that were dug into the bunker complex at Fort Bjørnåsen were simply forgotten once they were buried. Armor on the vehicle was ¾ inch to 1 ½ inch (19 – 38 mm) thick. As with the NM-116, the Bersepanser received the same 73-link split rubber block tracks made by the German company Diehl. There was also a point on the right rear of the hull for carrying a spare NM-116/130 roadwheel. As the Napoleonic era drew to a close, the victorious allies decided to award Norway to Sweden in 1814. In addition to the Norwegian Campaign, Norwegian soldiers joined the Norwegian resistance movement after German forces occupied Norway. The Flying Corps was organized in 3 divisions. The transmission and drive wheels were located at the front of the vehicle. But Norwegian defence forces, special forces, navy, army, airforce and iteligence operatives were all involved in the Cold War, keeping an active eye on the Soviet Union and activities . Norway received its first Chaffees after the Second World War, when US troops stationed in the country left the Norwegians 17 M24s when they withdrew. However, as the war with the Soviet Union dragged on, it was decided that most of the 25th Panzer division would depart from Norway in the fall of 1943 and be moved to the Eastern Front. Understanding fully that the Panzers and StuGs – now renamed the Stridsvogn KW-III and Stormkanon KW-III, respectively – were all but obsolete at this point, they were not going to field them as front line tanks, but rather keep them as defensive vehicles. Around this time, I was retrained to serve in the Leopard 1A5NO as a reservist. The Norwegian Army currently operates in the north of Norway and in Afghanistan as well as in Eastern Europe. In total – thanks to the NM upgrade programs – the M24 gave the Hæren approximately 47 years of service, making it one of Norway’s longest-serving armored vehicles.

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